Bullying refers to unwelcome or unsolicited acts of violence, aggression, intimidation, harassment, verbal abuse, social exclusion, or sexual coercion, which are enacted with the intent to cause physical or psychological harm.
Although bullying most commonly occurs among elementary school-aged students, adolescents, and teens, harassment among adults in the workplace is common and has earned media attention in recent years.
In children, adolescents, or teens, victims of bullying are often selected on the basis of perceived differences or weakness. Risk factors for bullying include: minority status (racial, ethnic, or religious minorities or LGBTQ+ identification); low-income students; individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities; overweight or underweight children; transfer students; unpopular or polarizing adolescents; and individuals with mental health challenges (including anxiety, depression, self-harm, low self-esteem, etc.).